Refugee Stories, Young Peace Journalists

Young Peace Journalists Stories: ‘My path as a Young Peace Journalist’

The following interview was conducted to Merveille Charles Kakule Saliboko, a member of the Young Peace Journalists from Butembo, North Kivu province, DRC.  He tells us why he chose to become a Young Peace Journalist for Pax Christi Internationaland explains from his own perspective the importance of such project.

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Interviewee Identity

Name: Merveille Charles Kakule Saliboko
Age: 26 years old
Sex: M
Hobbies: Communications, journalism, blogging writing, traveling

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Summary

This interview has been made to Merveille Charles Kakule Saliboko, a young peace journalist based in Butembo, North Kivu, in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Merveille is also a journalist, blogger, and works in communications for certain organisations. He writes for print, online press, and radio on topics relating to peace, agriculture, the environment, and sustainable development in the African Great Lakes region since 2010. His passion is to tell the stories of ordinary people doing extraordinary things, marginalized people, people displaced by war and waiting for the return of peace in their respective hometowns.

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Why did you decide to take Pax Christi International training?

In March 2016, I published an article on people fleeing the massacres of Beni, article published in the French magazine Afrique Agriculture. This article was awarded by AJVPD Tupashe Amani in collaboration with the MONUSCO public information section as part of the Amani Presse Peace Journalism Awards in North Kivu in May of the same year. The Young Peace Journalists initiative is timely, to enable me to sustain this peace journalism experience serving refugees, displaced persons, asylum seekers … 

How did you hear about it?

My cousin Kennedy Wema, who is a journalist (president of Syfia International and Reporters Without Borders correspondent in the DRC), took part in a Pax Christi International activity held in late 2016 in South Africa. Knowing that I had won a peace journalism award and knowing my concern to make this world better through peace journalism, he invited me to apply by sending me the phone number by email.

Why did you choose to interview these people?

It seemed interesting to me to better understand the situation that the orphaned child victims of the Beni massacres go through on a daily basis, when they fled, how their life goes in the community that welcomes them (here the school) and how the teachers understand the behavior of these children: how do these teachers “adapt” to the victims? Are they prepared to deal with the unpredictable cases of these traumatized victims? Are these victims sufficiently integrated? These are the questions that I wanted from the start to have answers for, to better present this situation to the rest of the world.

As for the second interview (to be published soon), I also proceeded with a questioning: the decision of the Prime Minister was made, was it followed? What is the current situation of Rwandan refugees living in Congo-Brazza? Are they stateless? What was the level of their integration into the local community (they have just spent 20 years in this country, for many of them!)? Questions that allow me to identify the situation of these people, in light of the cessation clause of the refugee status put forward by Rwanda since the end of 2017 that only Congo-Brazza has decided to apply.

Is migration a hot topic in your country?

This is a subject that is on the lips especially in the province of North Kivu where I live. Tribal communities are wary of each other especially towards the Rwandophone populations. They are rightly or wrongly accused of being at the root of the conflicts in the region. Recently, there was even a petition to demand the split of North Kivu, a petition initiated by the Rwandophones (Hutu and Tutsi). The same approach was initiated in South Kivu. In both cases, the other communities spoke with one voice, and initiate a counter-petition for the territorial unit of said provinces. In an amalgam, some people even say that the killings in Beni are perpetrated by Hutu who want to go to Ituri (there were also massacres not long ago, by the same people according to these sources). Looking for land to cultivate. This situation had even hampered the free movement of people from Goma (capital of the province) to Butembo (economic lung): thus, in mid-2016, two innocent women from Goma were stoned and burnt alive in Butembo. I had denounced this situation on my Facebook account, giving the true identity of these victims, the reason for their trips (family or business): here too, the youth had become aware. Given the relative prosperity of the Butembo region, there is no feeling of emigration. It is above all the internal migrations (mentioned above) that are all the rage.

How many interviews have been conducted up to now?

For the moment, a paper has been published. It’s a compilation of five interviews created with victims of the massacres of Beni, in the Nord-Kivu province in the east of the DRC. In the second interview, we see a human rights activist from The Congo, who tells us about the situation of Rwandan refugees in this country: what they endure, in light of the recent decision of the Congolese Prime Minister Clément Mouamba, to apply the secession clause of the refugee statute (as requested by the Rwandan government). This interview will be published next 29th of June.

What has changed?

It is difficult at the present time to quantify the changes in the communities that have been affected by the publications. Still, the article on the victims of the massacres sparked a wave of solidarity in the comments in the various Facebook groups where I shared the link. More awareness was born.As for the article on Rwandan refugees living in Congo-Brazza, we are waiting for the publication to have an impact. I hope that this will be the beginning of an awareness of the situation of those people we hardly talk about, except for the rare moments when the “officials” of the United Nations (UNHCR), Rwanda and Congo decide to talk about it.

What did it bring you personally?

I got out of it a lot of things. First, a practical training on peace journalism (I parachuted in this area by winning a prize following an article published in the “agricultural” sense). I needed to be equipped to cope better with the various situations in the region in which I live: I am convinced that peace in the world begins with me. I also met other young people, peace-loving like me.

Photo: Merveille (pictured in the middle) interviewing Massai people in north-western Tanzania in 2016.

Refugee Stories, Young Peace Journalists

Refugee Stories: Loamba Moke, human rights defender in Congo-Brazza: “The situation of Rwandan refugees in Congo is ambiguous”.

The following interview was done by Merveille Kakule Saliboko, a member of the Young Peace Journalists and a peace reporter based in Butembo, North Kivu, in eastern DRC.

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Loamba Moke, human rights defender in Congo-Brazza: “The situation of Rwandan refugees in Congo is ambiguous”.

After the genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994 (800,000 deaths among the Tutsi minority and moderate Hutu), a few thousand Rwandans had taken refuge in the Congo, a small country in Central Africa of about 5 million inhabitants after crossed the Democratic Republic of Congo. They are now scattered in many parts of the country and depend on agropastoral activities or petty trading. On them hangs the threat of statelessness due to the cessation of refugee status since December 31, 2017.

To better understand the situation, Mr. Loamba Moke, President of the Association of Human Rights and the Prison System (ADHUC), a civil society organization from Congo-Brazza, is online from Brazzaville. Interview with Merveille Kakule Saliboko, one of the Young Peace Journalists …

Mr. Loamba Moke, in mid-January, you published a statement in which you say that the Prime Minister of Congo-Brazza, Mr. Clement Mouamba, “just planned the genocide of the 8,460 Rwandan refugees” in the Congo. Today, how could we call these people? Refugees or migrants?

You are right to ask this question which is very delicate. As a human rights defender myself, I find it difficult to put an exact answer, to say what these non-exempt Rwandan refugees are becoming. Have they become migrants, stateless people? This is a very important question. Since the declaration of Prime Minister Clement Mouamba, the applicability of the conventions that Congo and Rwanda have had to sign internally, these conventions violate copiously and correctly the regional and international conventions. So, today, the situation Rwandan refugees in Congo is an ambiguous situation. We do not know which category to put these Rwandan refugees.

So, the Prime Minister’s statement of January 10, 2018 refers to the cessation of refugee status clause. What is the result of this statement?

After the Prime Minister’s statement, there were no effects of applicability. In principle, what we were waiting for was to see what the government should do to ask what the methodology is, what the means are … In fact, in the internal convention signed between the Congo and Rwanda, it is said that refugees who refused to go home, would be sentenced, arrested, extradited. You see that extraditing 8,460 refugees is not easy now to arrest all these people. To this day, the only difficulty that Rwandan refugees face is that they have no more papers, they cannot do any activities and therefore they are ransomed by the police of our country. This is a situation of violation of human rights, the rights of these Rwandan refugees.

Before this clause of cessation of refugee status, before this statement by Prime Minister Clement Mouamba, how did these Rwandan refugees live on Congolese soil?

They have been here in Congo for 20 years. There have been mixed marriages, some are farming, others are trading … They were already fully integrated in Congolese society. But unfortunately, today, they live the opposite of this integration that they had lived for nearly 20 years in Congolese society.

Has the status of these people changed in their daily lives? Are these people afraid to go out and not be arrested by the security services?

Exactly, they are arrested. So far, they only have their refugee cards running until December 31, 2017. And when the police arrest them, looking at who is already out of date, the policemen kidnap them, either arrested in police stations. They are asphyxiated. It’s hard to call this life a secret life. We call on the Congolese government to find a durable solution quickly.

Do you have any idea how many Rwandan refugees would be in Congolese prisons because they were arrested by the police because of the Prime Minister’s statement?

You know, there is no government information on the situation. The police act in their own way. The police are calling these Rwandan refugees and when they are arrested, at some point, if they have some money, they give. Sometimes they choose not to go to the prison and live in hiding. We are preparing a report of the reality on the ground, to describe in detail the situation.

Have there ever been voluntary returns of Rwandan refugees to their country of origin?

There were not many people; it’s at most twenty. We know the number of refugees who are not exempt, the 8,460. Moreover, those who have returned to Rwanda do not exceed twenty. Most of them remained in Congo because for them peace is not yet effective at the level of Rwanda.

In your press release, you ask yourself several questions about the reasons behind Prime Minister Clément Mouamba’s statement. What do you think would have motivated the Congolese prime minister?

The motivation is very simple. If you read our memorandum published in February 2017, in this memorandum, we showed what agreements the Congo had already signed with Rwanda, through their foreign affairs ministries. The Prime Minister is just applying these ten conventions. In one of these documents, it is said that when Rwandan refugees refuse to go home, the Congo has the obligation to arrest them and extradite them. This is well stated in the convention signed under the assistance of UNHCR, the United Nations High Council for Refugees. Has there been a thorough analysis to see how far more than 8,460 people can be extradited to their country? I do not know how they will proceed …

On October 2, 2015, a ministerial meeting on the Global Solutions Strategy for Rwandan Refugees took place in Geneva at UNHCR Headquarters. About voluntary repatriation, the Rwandan Government pledged on that day to “guarantee the safe and dignified return and reintegration of all refugees and take all necessary measures to that end”. Was this commitment not enough to convince refugees to return to Rwanda?

You know it’s a problem of the person. Every person has his rights. We have an obligation to respect the rights of each person. Only these people can tell us the reality. They are Rwandans, they lived in their country. Now that their country is developed, why do not they want to go back? That is what justifies events because in political law there is voluntary return, local integration and resettlement. But in Congo, the part of resettlement was obstructed, and voluntary return and local integration were kept. For us, we first look at the individual. What does the individual think of himself? Is he reassured? It’s not a question of what the rulers do. A good part of refugees does not want to leave because they do not have the security guarantee. We must analyse those people who have lived in Rwanda, who have lived through the war, who have fled their country and who are on Congolese territory. They have rights that UNHCR must respect, as well as Rwanda and Congo. Did they respect the rights of refugees? Now, if they are turned back, expelled, their rights are not respected. You know that the Rwandans who are in Congo have memoranda, which they sent to the head of state explaining their non-return. That’s it but their explanations were not considered.

The same meeting of 2 October 2015 also talks about local integration. The “commitment of the participants to redouble their efforts to facilitate the possibilities of local integration for those who wish to remain in the country of asylum”. What has been done in this way?

Local integration took place in 2006 in Congo. Because the Congo and Rwanda, in their conventions, it is said somewhere that Rwandan refugees in Congo-Brazza must withdraw the passports at the level of the chancery, at the embassy of Rwanda in the Congo. These people still consider themselves refugees. And the 1961 convention says that when a refugee agrees to take a document from his country such as a passport, that person totally loses his refugee status. This is an obstacle for Rwandan refugees. The Rwandan and Congolese governments have put in place this strategy for refugees to withdraw their passports to achieve local integration. But, dear journalist, the Rwandan refugees arrived in Brazzaville without any documents because they were in a situation of war. And when they arrived in Congo, they were granted a collective status. UNHCR has kept them for 20 years under this collective status. UNHCR could, after two years, examine case by case and determine who should be and who should not be refugees. UNHCR waited 20 years to ask these refugees to build files to have individual refugee status. This means that there has been a lack of documents everywhere in the refugee camp in our country.

Another commitment that day was the “need to prevent former refugees from finding themselves without legal status or at risk of becoming stateless and agree to take all possible measures, including the exploration of the acquisition of citizenship, to avoid such a situation “. Are there any progress towards the acquisition of Congolese citizenship for these Rwandan refugees?

We are putting in place a strategy because you know that people have spent 20 years in Congo, they have had children in this country. And these children are at university, in high schools, in colleges. These children live in the same camps with their parents. However, our national law states that at 18 you can have nationality. It is a possibility for us to see these children who cannot go to Rwanda but who can acquire nationality, which could arrange their parents. This is an approach that ADHUC is putting in place today.

What is the status of these children born of mixed marriages? I imagine they are torn between the possibility of staying in Congo with their Congolese parents or returning to Rwanda with Rwandan parents …

In principle, even Rwandan children, born to Rwandan parents on Congolese soil, can apply for Congolese citizenship at 18 years of age. That, there are not so many problems. Now, we call on the Congolese government to tap into wisdom and find a lasting solution. We told the United Nations to find a lasting solution. The durable solution is neither forced repatriation nor extradition. I believe that the Congolese government is seeking a solution and I hope that the durable solution will be found to respond to the lamentations, tears and worries of the refugees. I am tempted to say that a political solution is needed at this time.

When and how did these Rwandan refugees arrive in Congo-Brazzaville, more than 2,000 kilometers from their native Rwanda?

You know that the DRC is border with Congo, and the DRC borders Rwanda. After the Rwandan genocide, many refugees found themselves in the DRC. When the Kigali power pursued them into the DRC’s forests, they crossed this vast country. We recorded unaccompanied children, those who lost their parents on the way but there was African solidarity, Bantu solidarity and we brought them to Brazzaville. See! Even these children are considered as people who must go back to Rwanda. They were chased towards the DRC, from where they were chased again in the forests and they found themselves in Congo crossing the Congo river to meet in the northern departments, in Ikolela and Ikobo. Today, they are still pursued.

According to the AFP (Agence France Presse), before the deadline of December 31, only 104 Rwandan refugees were repatriated voluntarily in their country, eighteen have sought local integration and 802 have benefited from the exemption until in 2020. The remaining 8,460 are without status.

Merveille Kakule Saliboko is a peace reporter based in Butembo, North Kivu, in eastern DRC. In May 2016, he won the Peace Journalism Award in North Kivu, a prize set up by AJVPD Tupashe Amani in collaboration with MONUSCO. His award-winning article, “l’agriculture contre la guerre”, published in Afrique Agriculture in March 2016, speaks of displaced people fleeing the massacres taking place in the city and territory of Beni, North Kivu, and who, in waiting for the return of peace in their home environment, engage in agriculture in the city of Butembo. With Pax Christi International, Merveille’s ambition is to be the bard of peace.

Refugee Stories, Young Peace Journalists

Refugee Stories: Listening to the victims of the Beni massacres

The following interview was done by Merveille Kakule Saliboko, a member of the Young Peace Journalists. It is the latest entry in the Young Peace Journalists project featuring the stories and voices of refugees. 

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[Ed. Note: To read this interview in French, click here.]

In Beni, North Kivu province, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, the La Charité Bilingue school complex is home to 4 orphans of the Beni massacres. More than a thousand people were killed in three years of massacres in the city and territory of Beni. These massacres, attributed to ADF (Allied Democratic Forces, Ugandan militia operating in eastern DRC), have caused the displacement of several thousand Congolese in the region. The displaced are in Beni and Butembo in host families.

In Beni, I had the opportunity to talk with the victims of these massacres, in the compound of the school complex La Charité Bilingue. This school has 208 primary and 22 kindergarten students. Sarah is the only orphan in kindergarten, the other three being in primary school as Julien, familiar to Sarah. Julien’s mother is called Soki Lwanzo. She is the first to express herself in front of my camera, in the courtyard of the school…

Merveille: You are a victim of the massacres. How do you deal with it now?

Lwanzo: We learn manual labor. Because, they have seen that unlike fieldwork, manual labor guarantees us at least a small profit that can enable us to pay the children’s tuition fees.

Merveille: Can you tell us personally how the period of the massacres took place?

Lwanzo: I, God, had given me thanks. We were there with my husband; we had just spent about three months to plant beans and peanuts. Immediately afterwards, I fell ill, very ill even and then my husband had brought me here to the hospital for care. After feeling well, I promised to join my husband after vaccinating the baby who was only one year old … it was on a Friday, that we suddenly learn that there was a massacre In Eringeti center.

As a result, I had forbidden him to return to the field but he had refused. And so I went to tell my mother-in-law but in vain. He left on Monday and by bad luck he was a victim in the massacre on Wednesday of the same week. His little brother had been saved by hiding in the forest. In the morning he had returned to the hut to see if there were any survivors, little Sarah was at home and reporting the death of her mother and uncle killed in the headline. The little brother of the victim and the little Sarah went directly to Eringeti center and without the presence of her uncle (the little brother of Sarah’s father) Sarah was going to die of hunger. That’s all I know.

Merveille: Since that day, have you personally already visited the scene of the drama?

Lwanzo: On the day my relatives were killed, people were called to pick up the body of members of their families. Then the authorities again said that the passage is blocked because the ADF elements prohibit access in the forest. From then on, I never went to see it.

Merveille: How do you experience this trauma?

Lwanzo: There are times that happen to me. But mostly children, sometimes they lose the urge to go to school. When you ask them why, they say they remember their father, sometimes even when they see a face resembling their father.

I, too, begin to understand and mourn today. And since this drama, I live in my in-laws.

(I stop the camera and end the interview with this survivor of the massacres. Next comes Dhimbe Buma Naomi. She is responsible for kindergarten at La Charité Bilingue school complex. For 2 years, she takes care of Sarah whose behavior she describes…)

Merveille: So, madam, can you tell us about this orphan child who is kindergarten here? How do you see her behavior in class? Does it fit?

Naomi: Yes, there is a change in her life in general. Because at the beginning, so her first year here at home, it was really difficult. Because when she met other children outside in the yard, or even in class, there were days when she woke up badly. She was only standing upright. She is told to sit down and refuse. Or she wanted to be left alone. And if you approach her, she pushed people, made that push others without sitting. Or else she was only crying so much that we could no longer care for the other children. All she did was take care of herself until she calmed down. There are times when all toys had to belong to her, even the teacher she wanted to own me to herself. If you want to touch her, she was just typing. On other days she only broke, abused things, in any case everything. If it was in the courtyard, she was just tapping the others. So it was really difficult to frame it. Sometimes if you send her to the board, she wanted to work alone, with no one else beside her, even if you could send four at a time. For her, in any case, she had to be left alone. We endured that for the first year.

Merveille: And how did the change happen?

Naomi: The second year the day she wakes up badly she comes but does not talk to anyone. You greet her she does not answer. And if you’re interested in her, she has to leave school and go where she wants. For how long? Even thirty minutes. And if you try to follow it, she picks up stones and throws them to everyone, even to the teacher, In any case to everyone. You are obliged to leave it, then you let it go by observing it until you tire of it elsewhere. It is afterwards that she will return herself, on her own initiative. And she returns to follow course. Sometimes there is an activity you are doing with other children, she comes in and gets very calmly without speaking to anyone. But if you come to this is what interests her, she is very intelligent, and she is courageous. It may be even hereditary, I think. She also loves her teacher, she loves me anyway, and that’s why I attract her. I begin to make gestures and she approaches by shouting “me too” and then I manage to take it with the others saying “Yes, it’s Sarah’s turn…» And now she works a lot. And I take advantage of this state to motivate her more. I give good examples on her by asking the other children and they appreciate her by her courage.

However, even today, the day when she woke up badly, it does not go! That day, you have to wait until she calms down that things can work. Because she pushes others, breaks things, types, etc. And some situations disturb her. It’s like when she saw the presence of the mother who just came out of the courtyard ah, it disturbed us, she just beats the others, and she refuses things to people…

In short, she is a girl who, on the day when she wants to work, she wins. But on the day when she awakes badly, she only commits blunders, wants to work alone. And the day she misses food (snack or something at home), she begins to ask others and once she is given, she begins to say thank you in the way of the old moms, so in a sincere way. I think it’s something she’s imitated somewhere.

(Adapt! How? After the teacher, I talk with Kasereka Tsongo Siméon. He is the director of La Charité Bilingue primary school…)

Merveille: How do teachers and you school authorities do to answer the whims that can be presented these children victims of the massacres?

Siméon: First of all, I thank you for coming to us to immerse yourself in the reality of the children we are hosting in our Charité Bilingue school complex. Precisely of all that you have just related. We have two sections: in primary school we have six classes, and at the maternal level, it is a rising school that has two levels of level 1 and level 2. Of a total of 208 we have at least 27 Children who are orphans including 4 orphans of the massacres. I will therefore speak of two cases: orphan children who are not massacres, then those who are orphans of the massacres.

Compared to children who are orphaned of massacres, they really have several whims. Fortunately for us, there are games that we organize in the mornings at the show, but also we have been trained in trauma: how to help a child traumatized. All teachers have taken this training at the beginning of this school year. We have been taught that to help a traumatized child, you must first understand, call the child to you, listen to him and feel as if you were the one feeling, as if you were the first one victim. This is where you will know how to help the child. It is in this way that we are gradually landing these caprices. We have also been trained in conflict management, because you know that these children attended the massacres of their parents. We do everything to show them that especially the Eternal God is our father, He is going to help us in all our lives, and we have to trust him. So we show them salvation.

For children who are not orphans of the massacres, we show them that the only father, the father of the orphans is God the all-powerful. We also organize cults often every Monday. There we show the children that it is God who protects us, it is he who keeps our lives, it is God who protects us, even if we can have or not have parents.

Merveille: And you think this trauma can fade after how long?

Siméon: I think it’s little by little, it’s not for a session; it takes time. And we have planned activities for the whole year. Besides, it will be for three years. If we have difficulty managing them because we need money, it can happen. But we have now taken a pedagogical method so that we can overcome these caprices, these traumas.

Merveille: Which method?

Siméon: For example games. We have to have gambling halls. You have to take a short stroll with these children. We organize small conferences with these children where children can express themselves. We also do poetry every morning. And we also have a partnership with UCBC (Bilingual Christian University of Congo). We also have a listening session with a psychologist. She takes care of our children. She spends every Tuesday and Friday to listen to them, their difficulties, to help them. This is in short what we have undertaken to try a little bit to overcome these traumas in which these children find themselves.

(To adapt, that’s what I have in mind when Sarah appears before the lens of my camera. On Wednesday, October 28, 2014, this girl lost her two parents and her maternal uncle in Bango, near Eringeti, on the Kainama road. That day, she and her parents were there. She survived…)

Merveille: Hello Sarah?

Sarah: Yes, good morning.

Merveille: Is it ok for you, being at school?

Sarah: Yes!

Merveille: Here at school Charité…

Sarah: Charité Bilingue

Merveille: Why is it bilingual, in your opinion?

Sarah: I’m here to study.

Merveille: What do you like to study here?

Sarah: The number 1, the number 2.

Merveille: You like numbers. Do you like to play too?

Sarah: Yeah.

Merveille: Do you have a lot of friends in class?

Sarah: Yeah.

Merveille: Like who?

Sarah: Prisca, Gemima, Zawadi,…

Merveille: And the teacher?

No answer.

Merveille: Do you like French?

Sarah: No!

Merveille: Why? It’s too difficult?

No answer.

Merveille: You like the number 1, the number 2. And what else?

Sarah: The number 4.

Merveille: Why do you like numbers?

No answer.

Merveille: Sarah, what would you like to do in life? Do you have any idea what you want?

No answer.

Merveille: Do you want us to speak in Kiswahili?

No answer.

(Now is Julien. He is attending La Charité Bilingue elementary school. He is the son of Soki Lwanzo. On October 28, 2014, he lost his father and his paternal aunt in Bango. This is Sarah’s family … Also adapting to Julien…)

Merveille: Mr. Julien, you are in school La Charité Bilingue. What do you like about school here?

Julien: I want to write English.

Merveille: Can you give me a few words in English?

Julien: Good morning. Yes, good morning. How are you? I’m fine. What is your name? My name is Julien. Where are you going? I’m going to school. I forgot about others.

Merveille: Ah! You have forgotten! But you are already very strong in English. You amazed me. Hey! Julien, what would you like to become in life?

Julien: I would like to become a motorcycle because Mom says so.

Merveille: Do you have a lot of friends here at school?

Julien: Yes, we play football and basketball with them.

Merveille: How are you playing?

Julien: The basketball is marked with hands and foot with feet.

Merveille: You are in what grade of primary?

Julien: I’m in my third year.

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Merveille Kakule Saliboko is a Congolese journalist based in Butembo, North Kivu province, in eastern DRC. He works for radio, television, online and written press. In May 2016, he was awarded the Amani Presse Prize for peace journalism in North Kivu, awarded by AJVPD Tupashe Amani and MONUSCO. Its award-winning article, “l’agriculture contre la guerre”, which appeared in Afrique Agriculture in March 2016, speaks of displaced people fleeing the ADF massacres and who, pending the return of peace to their respective communities, cultivate land in the Butembo to re-socialize. With Pax Christi International, Merveille hopes to be the bard of peace.